diff mbox

[dpdk-dev,v2] doc: add coding standards documentation

Message ID 1433339893-19603-1-git-send-email-bruce.richardson@intel.com (mailing list archive)
State Accepted, archived
Headers show

Commit Message

Bruce Richardson June 3, 2015, 1:58 p.m. UTC
Add coding standards document to guides directory. This document
codifies the current DPDK C coding conventions, to make it easier for
contributors to see the format their code should be in.

Signed-off-by: Siobhan Butler <siobhan.a.butler@intel.com>
Signed-off-by: Bruce Richardson <bruce.richardson@intel.com>

---

Updates in V2:
* Fixed file creation mode
* Removed blank line at end of file
* Adjusted coding blocks to be C language, rather than console, so as to
  have correct syntax highlighting.
* Shortened longer lines by breaking lines at sentence - and
  occasionally comma - boundaries.
---
 doc/guides/coding_standards/index.rst | 861 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 doc/guides/index.rst                  |   1 +
 2 files changed, 862 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 doc/guides/coding_standards/index.rst

Comments

Thomas Monjalon June 3, 2015, 5:35 p.m. UTC | #1
2015-06-03 14:58, Bruce Richardson:
> Add coding standards document to guides directory. This document
> codifies the current DPDK C coding conventions, to make it easier for
> contributors to see the format their code should be in.
> 
> Signed-off-by: Siobhan Butler <siobhan.a.butler@intel.com>
> Signed-off-by: Bruce Richardson <bruce.richardson@intel.com>
> 
> ---
> 
> Updates in V2:
> * Fixed file creation mode
> * Removed blank line at end of file
> * Adjusted coding blocks to be C language, rather than console, so as to
>   have correct syntax highlighting.
> * Shortened longer lines by breaking lines at sentence - and
>   occasionally comma - boundaries.
> ---
>  doc/guides/coding_standards/index.rst | 861 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>  doc/guides/index.rst                  |   1 +

This version seems very good.
However, I have the feeling that coding_standards/ is not a good name:
	- "standards" word is a bit strong ;
	- "coding" seems too restrictive, maybe we would like to put
more guidelines in this directory (thinking about file tree, compat and tests).
Do you agree I rename it to guidelines/coding_style.rst?
Bruce Richardson June 4, 2015, 9:33 a.m. UTC | #2
On Wed, Jun 03, 2015 at 07:35:32PM +0200, Thomas Monjalon wrote:
> 2015-06-03 14:58, Bruce Richardson:
> > Add coding standards document to guides directory. This document
> > codifies the current DPDK C coding conventions, to make it easier for
> > contributors to see the format their code should be in.
> > 
> > Signed-off-by: Siobhan Butler <siobhan.a.butler@intel.com>
> > Signed-off-by: Bruce Richardson <bruce.richardson@intel.com>
> > 
> > ---
> > 
> > Updates in V2:
> > * Fixed file creation mode
> > * Removed blank line at end of file
> > * Adjusted coding blocks to be C language, rather than console, so as to
> >   have correct syntax highlighting.
> > * Shortened longer lines by breaking lines at sentence - and
> >   occasionally comma - boundaries.
> > ---
> >  doc/guides/coding_standards/index.rst | 861 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> >  doc/guides/index.rst                  |   1 +
> 
> This version seems very good.
> However, I have the feeling that coding_standards/ is not a good name:
> 	- "standards" word is a bit strong ;
> 	- "coding" seems too restrictive, maybe we would like to put
> more guidelines in this directory (thinking about file tree, compat and tests).
> Do you agree I rename it to guidelines/coding_style.rst?

No problem, go with it!
Thomas Monjalon June 4, 2015, 9:49 a.m. UTC | #3
2015-06-04 10:33, Bruce Richardson:
> On Wed, Jun 03, 2015 at 07:35:32PM +0200, Thomas Monjalon wrote:
> > 2015-06-03 14:58, Bruce Richardson:
> > > Add coding standards document to guides directory. This document
> > > codifies the current DPDK C coding conventions, to make it easier for
> > > contributors to see the format their code should be in.
> > > 
> > > Signed-off-by: Siobhan Butler <siobhan.a.butler@intel.com>
> > > Signed-off-by: Bruce Richardson <bruce.richardson@intel.com>
> > > 
> > > ---
> > > 
> > > Updates in V2:
> > > * Fixed file creation mode
> > > * Removed blank line at end of file
> > > * Adjusted coding blocks to be C language, rather than console, so as to
> > >   have correct syntax highlighting.
> > > * Shortened longer lines by breaking lines at sentence - and
> > >   occasionally comma - boundaries.
> > > ---
> > >  doc/guides/coding_standards/index.rst | 861 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> > >  doc/guides/index.rst                  |   1 +
> > 
> > This version seems very good.
> > However, I have the feeling that coding_standards/ is not a good name:
> > 	- "standards" word is a bit strong ;
> > 	- "coding" seems too restrictive, maybe we would like to put
> > more guidelines in this directory (thinking about file tree, compat and tests).
> > Do you agree I rename it to guidelines/coding_style.rst?
> 
> No problem, go with it!

Acked-by: Thomas Monjalon <thomas.monjalon@6wind.com>

Applied, thanks
Bruce Richardson June 4, 2015, 1:36 p.m. UTC | #4
On Thu, Jun 04, 2015 at 11:49:49AM +0200, Thomas Monjalon wrote:
> 2015-06-04 10:33, Bruce Richardson:
> > On Wed, Jun 03, 2015 at 07:35:32PM +0200, Thomas Monjalon wrote:
> > > 2015-06-03 14:58, Bruce Richardson:
> > > > Add coding standards document to guides directory. This document
> > > > codifies the current DPDK C coding conventions, to make it easier for
> > > > contributors to see the format their code should be in.
> > > > 
> > > > Signed-off-by: Siobhan Butler <siobhan.a.butler@intel.com>
> > > > Signed-off-by: Bruce Richardson <bruce.richardson@intel.com>
> > > > 
> > > > ---
> > > > 
> > > > Updates in V2:
> > > > * Fixed file creation mode
> > > > * Removed blank line at end of file
> > > > * Adjusted coding blocks to be C language, rather than console, so as to
> > > >   have correct syntax highlighting.
> > > > * Shortened longer lines by breaking lines at sentence - and
> > > >   occasionally comma - boundaries.
> > > > ---
> > > >  doc/guides/coding_standards/index.rst | 861 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> > > >  doc/guides/index.rst                  |   1 +
> > > 
> > > This version seems very good.
> > > However, I have the feeling that coding_standards/ is not a good name:
> > > 	- "standards" word is a bit strong ;
> > > 	- "coding" seems too restrictive, maybe we would like to put
> > > more guidelines in this directory (thinking about file tree, compat and tests).
> > > Do you agree I rename it to guidelines/coding_style.rst?
> > 
> > No problem, go with it!
> 
> Acked-by: Thomas Monjalon <thomas.monjalon@6wind.com>
> 
> Applied, thanks

Great!

General request to mailing list: While I've done my best with this doc to 
cover the current practice of coding in DPDK, I know there are lots of areas of
style and convention I must have missed. Please submit patches to help fill in the
gaps in this doc. :-)

Thanks!
/Bruce
diff mbox

Patch

diff --git a/doc/guides/coding_standards/index.rst b/doc/guides/coding_standards/index.rst
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..27ea53c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/doc/guides/coding_standards/index.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,861 @@ 
+Coding Style
+=============
+
+Description
+-----------
+
+This document specifies the preferred style for source files in the DPDK source tree.
+It is based on the Linux Kernel coding guidelines and the FreeBSD 7.2 Kernel Developer's Manual (see man style(9)), but was heavily modified for the needs of the DPDK.
+
+General Guidelines
+------------------
+
+The rules and guidelines given in this document cannot cover every situation, so the following general guidelines should be used as a fallback:
+
+* The code style should be consistent within each individual file.
+* In the case of creating new files, the style should be consistent within each file in a given directory or module.
+* The primary reason for coding standards is to increase code readability and comprehensibility, therefore always use whatever option will make the code easiest to read.
+
+Line length is recommended to be not more than 80 characters, including comments.
+[Tab stop size should be assumed to be 8-characters wide].
+
+.. note::
+
+	The above is recommendation, and not a hard limit.
+	However, it is expected that the recommendations should be followed in all but the rarest situations.
+
+C Comment Style
+---------------
+
+Usual Comments
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+These comments should be used in normal cases.
+To document a public API, a doxygen-like format must be used: refer to Doxygen Documentation.
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+ /*
+  * VERY important single-line comments look like this.
+  */
+
+ /* Most single-line comments look like this. */
+
+ /*
+  * Multi-line comments look like this.  Make them real sentences. Fill
+  * them so they look like real paragraphs.
+  */
+
+License Header
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Each file should begin with a special comment containing the appropriate copyright and license for the file.
+Generally this is the BSD License, except for code for Linux Kernel modules.
+After any copyright header, a blank line should be left before any other contents, e.g. include statements in a C file.
+
+C Preprocessor Directives
+-------------------------
+
+Header Includes
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+In DPDK sources, the include files should be ordered as following:
+
+#. libc includes (system includes first)
+#. DPDK EAL includes
+#. DPDK misc libraries includes
+#. application-specific includes
+
+Include files from the local application directory are included using quotes, while includes from other paths are included using angle brackets: "<>".
+
+Example:
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+ #include <stdio.h>
+ #include <stdlib.h>
+
+ #include <rte_eal.h>
+
+ #include <rte_ring.h>
+ #include <rte_mempool.h>
+
+ #include "application.h"
+
+Header File Guards
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Headers should be protected against multiple inclusion with the usual:
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+   #ifndef _FILE_H_
+   #define _FILE_H_
+
+   /* Code */
+
+   #endif /* _FILE_H_ */
+
+
+Macros
+~~~~~~
+
+Do not ``#define`` or declare names except with the standard DPDK prefix: ``RTE_``.
+This is to ensure there are no collisions with definitions in the application itself.
+
+The names of "unsafe" macros (ones that have side effects), and the names of macros for manifest constants, are all in uppercase.
+
+The expansions of expression-like macros are either a single token or have outer parentheses.
+If a macro is an inline expansion of a function, the function name is all in lowercase and the macro has the same name all in uppercase.
+If the macro encapsulates a compound statement, enclose it in a do-while loop, so that it can be used safely in if statements.
+Any final statement-terminating semicolon should be supplied by the macro invocation rather than the macro, to make parsing easier for pretty-printers and editors.
+
+For example:
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+ #define MACRO(x, y) do {                                        \
+         variable = (x) + (y);                                   \
+         (y) += 2;                                               \
+ } while(0)
+
+.. note::
+
+ Wherever possible, enums and inline functions should be preferred to macros, since they provide additional degrees of type-safety and can allow compilers to emit extra warnings about unsafe code.
+
+Conditional Compilation
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+* When code is conditionally compiled using ``#ifdef`` or ``#if``, a comment may be added following the matching
+  ``#endif`` or ``#else`` to permit the reader to easily discern where conditionally compiled code regions end.
+* This comment should be used only for (subjectively) long regions, regions greater than 20 lines, or where a series of nested ``#ifdef``'s may be confusing to the reader.
+  Exceptions may be made for cases where code is conditionally not compiled for the purposes of lint(1), or other tools, even though the uncompiled region may be small.
+* The comment should be separated from the ``#endif`` or ``#else`` by a single space.
+* For short conditionally compiled regions, a closing comment should not be used.
+* The comment for ``#endif`` should match the expression used in the corresponding ``#if`` or ``#ifdef``.
+* The comment for ``#else`` and ``#elif`` should match the inverse of the expression(s) used in the preceding ``#if`` and/or ``#elif`` statements.
+* In the comments, the subexpression ``defined(FOO)`` is abbreviated as "FOO".
+  For the purposes of comments, ``#ifndef FOO`` is treated as ``#if !defined(FOO)``.
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+ #ifdef KTRACE
+ #include <sys/ktrace.h>
+ #endif
+
+ #ifdef COMPAT_43
+ /* A large region here, or other conditional code. */
+ #else /* !COMPAT_43 */
+ /* Or here. */
+ #endif /* COMPAT_43 */
+
+ #ifndef COMPAT_43
+ /* Yet another large region here, or other conditional code. */
+ #else /* COMPAT_43 */
+ /* Or here. */
+ #endif /* !COMPAT_43 */
+
+.. note::
+
+ Conditional compilation should be used only when absolutely necessary, as it increases the number of target binaries that need to be built and tested.
+
+C Types
+-------
+
+Integers
+~~~~~~~~
+
+For fixed/minimum-size integer values, the project uses the form uintXX_t (from stdint.h) instead of older BSD-style integer identifiers of the form u_intXX_t.
+
+Enumerations
+~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+* Enumeration values are all uppercase.
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+ enum enumtype { ONE, TWO } et;
+
+* Enum types should be used in preference to macros #defining a set of (sequential) values.
+* Enum types should be prefixed with ``rte_`` and the elements by a suitable prefix [generally starting ``RTE_<enum>_`` - where <enum> is a shortname for the enum type] to avoid namespace collisions.
+
+Bitfields
+~~~~~~~~~
+
+The developer should group bitfields that are included in the same integer, as follows:
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+ struct grehdr {
+   uint16_t rec:3,
+       srr:1,
+       seq:1,
+       key:1,
+       routing:1,
+       csum:1,
+       version:3,
+       reserved:4,
+       ack:1;
+ /* ... */
+ }
+
+Variable Declarations
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+In declarations, do not put any whitespace between asterisks and adjacent tokens, except for tokens that are identifiers related to types.
+(These identifiers are the names of basic types, type qualifiers, and typedef-names other than the one being declared.)
+Separate these identifiers from asterisks using a single space.
+
+For example:
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+   int *x;         /* no space after asterisk */
+   int * const x;  /* space after asterisk when using a type qualifier */
+
+* All externally-visible variables should have an ``rte_`` prefix in the name to avoid namespace collisions.
+* Do not use uppercase letters - either in the form of ALL_UPPERCASE, or CamelCase - in variable names.
+  Lower-case letters and underscores only.
+
+Structure Declarations
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+* In general, when declaring variables in new structures, declare them sorted by use, then by size (largest to smallest), and then in alphabetical order.
+  Sorting by use means that commonly used variables are used together and that the structure layout makes logical sense.
+  Ordering by size then ensures that as little padding is added to the structure as possible.
+* For existing structures, additions to structures should be added to the end so for backward compatibility reasons.
+* Each structure element gets its own line.
+* Try to make the structure readable by aligning the member names using spaces as shown below.
+* Names following extremely long types, which therefore cannot be easily aligned with the rest, should be separated by a single space.
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+ struct foo {
+         struct foo      *next;          /* List of active foo. */
+         struct mumble   amumble;        /* Comment for mumble. */
+         int             bar;            /* Try to align the comments. */
+         struct verylongtypename *baz;   /* Won't fit with other members */
+ };
+
+
+* Major structures should be declared at the top of the file in which they are used, or in separate header files if they are used in multiple source files.
+* Use of the structures should be by separate variable declarations and those declarations must be extern if they are declared in a header file.
+* Externally visible structure definitions should have the structure name prefixed by ``rte_`` to avoid namespace collisions.
+
+Queues
+~~~~~~
+
+Use queue(3) macros rather than rolling your own lists, whenever possible.
+Thus, the previous example would be better written:
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+ #include <sys/queue.h>
+
+ struct foo {
+         LIST_ENTRY(foo) link;      /* Use queue macros for foo lists. */
+         struct mumble   amumble;   /* Comment for mumble. */
+         int             bar;       /* Try to align the comments. */
+         struct verylongtypename *baz;   /* Won't fit with other members */
+ };
+ LIST_HEAD(, foo) foohead;          /* Head of global foo list. */
+
+
+DPDK also provides an optimized way to store elements in lockless rings.
+This should be used in all data-path code, when there are several consumer and/or producers to avoid locking for concurrent access.
+
+Typedefs
+~~~~~~~~
+
+Avoid using typedefs for structure types.
+
+For example, use:
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+ struct my_struct_type {
+ /* ... */
+ };
+
+ struct my_struct_type my_var;
+
+
+rather than:
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+ typedef struct my_struct_type {
+ /* ... */
+ } my_struct_type;
+
+ my_struct_type my_var
+
+
+Typedefs are problematic because they do not properly hide their underlying type;
+for example, you need to know if the typedef is the structure itself, as shown above, or a pointer to the structure.
+In addition, they must be declared exactly once, whereas an incomplete structure type can be mentioned as many times as necessary.
+Typedefs are difficult to use in stand-alone header files.
+The header that defines the typedef must be included before the header that uses it, or by the header that uses it (which causes namespace pollution),
+or there must be a back-door mechanism for obtaining the typedef.
+
+Note that #defines used instead of typedefs also are problematic (since they do not propagate the pointer type correctly due to direct text replacement).
+For example, ``#define pint int *`` does not work as expected, while ``typedef int *pint`` does work.
+As stated when discussing macros, typedefs should be preferred to macros in cases like this.
+
+When convention requires a typedef; make its name match the struct tag.
+Avoid typedefs ending in ``_t``, except as specified in Standard C or by POSIX.
+
+.. note::
+
+	It is recommended to use typedefs to define function pointer types, for reasons of code readability.
+	This is especially true when the function type is used as a parameter to another function.
+
+For example:
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+	/**
+	 * Definition of a remote launch function.
+	 */
+	typedef int (lcore_function_t)(void *);
+
+	/* launch a function of lcore_function_t type */
+	int rte_eal_remote_launch(lcore_function_t *f, void *arg, unsigned slave_id);
+
+
+C Indentation
+-------------
+
+General
+~~~~~~~
+
+* Indentation is a hard tab, that is, a tab character, not a sequence of spaces,
+
+.. note::
+
+	Global whitespace rule in DPDK, use tabs for indentation, spaces for alignment.
+
+* Do not put any spaces before a tab for indentation.
+* If you have to wrap a long statement, put the operator at the end of the line, and indent again.
+* For control statements (if, while, etc.), continuation it is recommended that the next line be indented by two tabs, rather than one,
+  to prevent confusion as to whether the second line of the control statement forms part of the statement body or not.
+  Alternatively, the line continuation may use additional spaces to line up to an appropriately point on the preceding line, for example, to align to an opening brace.
+
+.. note::
+
+	As with all style guidelines, code should match style already in use in an existing file.
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+ while (really_long_variable_name_1 == really_long_variable_name_2 &&
+     var3 == var4){  /* confusing to read as */
+     x = y + z;      /* control stmt body lines up with second line of */
+     a = b + c;      /* control statement itself if single indent used */
+ }
+
+ if (really_long_variable_name_1 == really_long_variable_name_2 &&
+         var3 == var4){  /* two tabs used */
+     x = y + z;          /* statement body no longer lines up */
+     a = b + c;
+ }
+
+ z = a + really + long + statement + that + needs +
+         two + lines + gets + indented + on + the +
+         second + and + subsequent + lines;
+
+
+* Do not add whitespace at the end of a line.
+
+* Do not add whitespace or a blank line at the end of a file.
+
+
+Control Statements and Loops
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+* Include a space after keywords (if, while, for, return, switch).
+* Do not use braces (``{`` and ``}``) for control statements with zero or just a single statement, unless that statement is more than a single line in which case the braces are permitted.
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+ for (p = buf; *p != '\0'; ++p)
+         ;       /* nothing */
+ for (;;)
+         stmt;
+ for (;;) {
+         z = a + really + long + statement + that + needs +
+                 two + lines + gets + indented + on + the +
+                 second + and + subsequent + lines;
+ }
+ for (;;) {
+         if (cond)
+                 stmt;
+ }
+ if (val != NULL)
+         val = realloc(val, newsize);
+
+
+* Parts of a for loop may be left empty.
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+ for (; cnt < 15; cnt++) {
+         stmt1;
+         stmt2;
+ }
+
+* Closing and opening braces go on the same line as the else keyword.
+* Braces that are not necessary should be left out.
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+ if (test)
+         stmt;
+ else if (bar) {
+         stmt;
+         stmt;
+ } else
+         stmt;
+
+
+Function Calls
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+* Do not use spaces after function names.
+* Commas should have a space after them.
+* No spaces after ``(`` or ``[`` or preceding the ``]`` or ``)`` characters.
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+	error = function(a1, a2);
+	if (error != 0)
+		exit(error);
+
+
+Operators
+~~~~~~~~~
+
+* Unary operators do not require spaces, binary operators do.
+* Do not use parentheses unless they are required for precedence or unless the statement is confusing without them.
+  However, remember that other people may be more easily confused than you.
+
+Exit
+~~~~
+
+Exits should be 0 on success, or 1 on failure.
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+         exit(0);        /*
+                          * Avoid obvious comments such as
+                          * "Exit 0 on success."
+                          */
+ }
+
+Local Variables
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+* Variables should be declared at the start of a block of code rather than in the middle.
+  The exception to this is when the variable is ``const`` in which case the declaration must be at the point of first use/assignment.
+* When declaring variables in functions, multiple variables per line are OK.
+  However, if multiple declarations would cause the line to exceed a reasonable line length, begin a new set of declarations on the next line rather than using a line continuation.
+* Be careful to not obfuscate the code by initializing variables in the declarations, only the last variable on a line should be initialized.
+  If multiple variables are to be initialised when defined, put one per line.
+* Do not use function calls in initializers, except for ``const`` variables.
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+ int i = 0, j = 0, k = 0;  /* bad, too many initializer */
+
+ char a = 0;        /* OK, one variable per line with initializer */
+ char b = 0;
+
+ float x, y = 0.0;  /* OK, only last variable has initializer */
+
+
+Casts and sizeof
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+* Casts and sizeof statements are not followed by a space.
+* Always write sizeof statements with parenthesis.
+  The redundant parenthesis rules do not apply to sizeof(var) instances.
+
+C Function Definition, Declaration and Use
+-------------------------------------------
+
+Prototypes
+~~~~~~~~~~
+
+* It is recommended (and generally required by the compiler) that all non-static functions are prototyped somewhere.
+* Functions local to one source module should be declared static, and should not be prototyped unless absolutely necessary.
+* Functions used from other parts of code (external API) must be prototyped in the relevant include file.
+* Function prototypes should be listed in a logical order, preferably alphabetical unless there is a compelling reason to use a different ordering.
+* Functions that are used locally in more than one module go into a separate header file, for example, "extern.h".
+* Do not use the ``__P`` macro.
+* Functions that are part of an external API should be documented using Doxygen-like comments above declarations. See the Doxgen documentation topic for details.
+* Functions that are part of the external API must have an ``rte_`` prefix on the function name.
+* Do not use uppercase letters - either in the form of ALL_UPPERCASE, or CamelCase - in function names. Lower-case letters and underscores only.
+* When prototyping functions, associate names with parameter types, for example:
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+ void function1(int fd); /* good */
+ void function2(int);    /* bad */
+
+* Short function prototypes should be contained on a single line.
+  Longer prototypes, e.g. those with many parameters, can be split across multiple lines.
+  The second and subsequent lines should be further indented as for line statement continuations as described in the previous section.
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+ static char *function1(int _arg, const char *_arg2,
+        struct foo *_arg3,
+        struct bar *_arg4,
+        struct baz *_arg5);
+ static void usage(void);
+
+.. note::
+
+	Unlike function definitions, the function prototypes do not need to place the function return type on a separate line.
+
+Definitions
+~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+* The function type should be on a line by itself preceding the function.
+* The opening brace of the function body should be on a line by itself.
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+ static char *
+ function(int a1, int a2, float fl, int a4)
+ {
+
+
+* Do not declare functions inside other functions.
+  ANSI C states that such declarations have file scope regardless of the nesting of the declaration.
+  Hiding file declarations in what appears to be a local scope is undesirable and will elicit complaints from a good compiler.
+* Old-style (K&R) function declaration should not be used, use ANSI function declarations instead as shown below.
+* Long argument lists should be wrapped as described above in the function prototypes section.
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+ /*
+  * All major routines should have a comment briefly describing what
+  * they do. The comment before the "main" routine should describe
+  * what the program does.
+  */
+ int
+ main(int argc, char *argv[])
+ {
+         char *ep;
+         long num;
+         int ch;
+
+C Statement Style and Conventions
+---------------------------------
+
+NULL Pointers
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+* NULL is the preferred null pointer constant.
+  Use NULL instead of ``(type *)0`` or ``(type *)NULL``, except where the compiler does not know the destination type e.g. for variadic args to a function.
+* Test pointers against NULL, for example, use:
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+ if (p == NULL) /* Good, compare pointer to NULL */
+
+ if (!p) /* Bad, using ! on pointer */
+
+
+* Do not use ! for tests unless it is a boolean, for example, use:
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+	if (*p == '\0') /* check character against (char)0 */
+
+Return Value
+~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+* Functions which create objects, or allocate memory, should return pointer types, and NULL on error.
+  The error type should be indicated may setting the variable ``rte_errno`` appropriately.
+* Functions which work on bursts of packets, such as RX-like or TX-like functions, should return the number of packets handled.
+* Other functions returning int should generally behave like system calls:
+  returning 0 on success and -1 on error, setting ``rte_errno`` to indicate the specific type of error.
+* Where already standard in a given library, the alternative error approach may be used where the negative value is not -1 but is instead ``-errno`` if relevant, for example, ``-EINVAL``.
+  Note, however, to allow consistency across functions returning integer or pointer types, the previous approach is preferred for any new libraries.
+* For functions where no error is possible, the function type should be ``void`` not ``int``.
+* Routines returning ``void *`` should not have their return values cast to any pointer type.
+  (Typecasting can prevent the compiler from warning about missing prototypes as any implicit definition of a function returns int,
+  which, unlike ``void *``, needs a typecast to assign to a pointer variable.)
+
+.. note::
+
+	The above rule about not typecasting ``void *`` applies to malloc, as well as to DPDK functions.
+
+* Values in return statements should not be enclosed in parentheses.
+
+Logging and Errors
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+In the DPDK environment, use the logging interface provided:
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+ #define RTE_LOGTYPE_TESTAPP1 RTE_LOGTYPE_USER1
+ #define RTE_LOGTYPE_TESTAPP2 RTE_LOGTYPE_USER2
+
+ /* enable these logs type */
+ rte_set_log_type(RTE_LOGTYPE_TESTAPP1, 1);
+ rte_set_log_type(RTE_LOGTYPE_TESTAPP2, 1);
+
+ /* log in debug level */
+ rte_set_log_level(RTE_LOG_DEBUG);
+ RTE_LOG(DEBUG, TESTAPP1, "this is is a debug level message\n");
+ RTE_LOG(INFO, TESTAPP1, "this is is a info level message\n");
+ RTE_LOG(WARNING, TESTAPP1, "this is is a warning level message\n");
+
+ /* log in info level */
+ rte_set_log_level(RTE_LOG_INFO);
+ RTE_LOG(DEBUG, TESTAPP2, "debug level message (not displayed)\n");
+
+Branch Prediction
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+* When a test is done in a critical zone (called often or in a data path) the code can use the ``likely()`` and ``unlikely()`` macros to indicate the expected, or preferred fast path.
+  They are expanded as a compiler builtin and allow the developer to indicate if the branch is likely to be taken or not. Example:
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+ #include <rte_branch_prediction.h>
+ if (likely(x > 1))
+   do_stuff();
+
+.. note::
+
+	The use of ``likely()`` and ``unlikely()`` should only be done in performance critical paths,
+	and only when there is a clearly preferred path, or a measured performance increase gained from doing so.
+	These macros should be avoided in non-performance-critical code.
+
+Static Variables and Functions
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+* All functions and variables that are local to a file must be declared as ``static`` because it can often help the compiler to do some optimizations (such as, inlining the code).
+* Functions that should be inlined should to be declared as ``static inline`` and can be defined in a .c or a .h file.
+
+.. note::
+	Static functions defined in a header file must be declared as ``static inline`` in order to prevent compiler warnings about the function being unused.
+
+Const Attribute
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The ``const`` attribute should be used as often as possible when a variable is read-only.
+
+Inline ASM in C code
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The ``asm`` and ``volatile`` keywords do not have underscores. The AT&T syntax should be used.
+Input and output operands should be named to avoid confusion, as shown in the following example:
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+	asm volatile("outb %[val], %[port]"
+		: :
+		[port] "dN" (port),
+		[val] "a" (val));
+
+Control Statements
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+* Forever loops are done with for statements, not while statements.
+* Elements in a switch statement that cascade should have a FALLTHROUGH comment. For example:
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+         switch (ch) {         /* Indent the switch. */
+         case 'a':             /* Don't indent the case. */
+                 aflag = 1;    /* Indent case body one tab. */
+                 /* FALLTHROUGH */
+         case 'b':
+                 bflag = 1;
+                 break;
+         case '?':
+         default:
+                 usage();
+                 /* NOTREACHED */
+         }
+
+Environment or Architecture-specific Sources
+--------------------------------------------
+
+In DPDK and DPDK applications, some code is specific to an architecture (i686, x86_64) or to an executive environment (bsdapp or linuxapp) and so on.
+As far as is possible, all such instances of architecture or env-specific code should be provided via standard APIs in the EAL.
+
+By convention, a file is common if it is not located in a directory indicating that it is specific.
+For instance, a file located in a subdir of "x86_64" directory is specific to this architecture.
+A file located in a subdir of "linuxapp" is specific to this execution environment.
+
+.. note::
+
+	Code in DPDK libraries and applications should be generic.
+	The correct location for architecture or executive environment specific code is in the EAL.
+
+When absolutely necessary, there are several ways to handle specific code:
+
+* Use a ``#ifdef`` with the CONFIG option in the C code.
+  This can be done when the differences are small and they can be embedded in the same C file:
+
+.. code-block: console
+
+   #ifdef RTE_ARCH_I686
+   toto();
+   #else
+   titi();
+   #endif
+
+* Use the CONFIG option in the Makefile. This is done when the differences are more significant.
+  In this case, the code is split into two separate files that are architecture or environment specific.  This should only apply inside the EAL library.
+
+.. note:
+
+	As in the linux kernel, the "CONFIG_" prefix is not used in C code.
+	This is only needed in Makefiles or shell scripts.
+
+Per Architecture Sources
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The following config options can be used:
+
+* CONFIG_RTE_ARCH is a string that contains the name of the architecture.
+* CONFIG_RTE_ARCH_I686, CONFIG_RTE_ARCH_X86_64, CONFIG_RTE_ARCH_X86_64_32 or CONFIG_RTE_ARCH_PPC_64 are defined only if we are building for those architectures.
+
+Per Execution Environment Sources
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The following config options can be used:
+
+* CONFIG_RTE_EXEC_ENV is a string that contains the name of the executive environment.
+* CONFIG_RTE_EXEC_ENV_BSDAPP or CONFIG_RTE_EXEC_ENV_LINUXAPP are defined only if we are building for this execution environment.
+
+Doxygen Documentation
+---------------------
+
+The API documentation is automatically generated in the DPDK framework.
+That is why all files that are part of the public API must be documented using Doxygen syntax.
+
+The public API comprises functions of DPDK that can be used by an external application that will use the SDK.
+Only the Doxygen syntax described in the coding rules (this document) should be used in the code.
+All the Doxygen features are described in the Doxygen manual online.
+
+Documenting a Function
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+All public functions must be documented. The documentation is placed in the header file, above the declaration of the function.
+The definition of the function may be documented, but using standard comments (not in doxygen format).
+The following is an example of function documentation:
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+ /**
+  * Summary here; one sentence on one line (should not exceed 80 chars).
+  *
+  * A more detailed description goes here.
+  *
+  * A blank line forms a paragraph. There should be no trailing white-space
+  * anywhere.
+  *
+  * @param first
+  *   "@param" is a Doxygen directive to describe a function parameter. Like
+  *   some other directives, it takes a term/summary on the same line and a
+  *   description (this text) indented by 2 spaces on the next line. All
+  *   descriptive text should wrap at 80 chars, without going over.
+  *   Newlines are NOT supported within directives; if a newline would be
+  *   before this text, it would be appended to the general description above.
+  * @param second
+  *   There should be no newline between multiple directives (of the same
+  *   type).
+  *
+  * @return
+  *   "@return" is a different Doxygen directive to describe the return value
+  *   of a function, if there is any.
+  */
+ int rte_foo(int first, int second)
+
+
+Documenting Files
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Each public file may start with a comment describing what the file does. For example:
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+ /**
+  * @file
+  * This file describes the coding rules of RTE.
+  *
+  * It contains the coding rules of C code, ASM code, reStructured
+  * Text documentation, and of course how to use doxygen to document
+  * public API.
+  */
+
+
+Documenting Constants and Variables
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Examples:
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+ /**
+  * The definition of a funny TRUE.
+  */
+ #define TRUE 0
+
+ #define TRUE 1 /**< another way to document a macro */
+
+ /**
+  * Frequency of the HPET counter in Hz
+  *
+  * @see rte_eal_hpet_init()
+  */
+ extern uint64_t eal_hpet_resolution_hz;
+
+
+Documenting Structures
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Public structures should also be documented.
+The ``/**<`` sequence can be used to documented the fields of the structure, as shown in the following example:
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+ /**
+  * Structure describing a memzone, which is a contiguous portions of
+  * physical memory identified by a name.
+  */
+ struct rte_memzone {
+
+ #define MEMZONE_NAMESIZE 32
+   char name[MEMZONE_NAMESIZE]; /**< name of the memory zone */
+
+   phys_addr_t phys_addr;       /**< start physical address */
+   void *addr;                  /**< start virtual address */
+   uint64_t len;                /**< len of the memzone */
+
+   int socket_id;               /**< NUMA socket id */
+ };
+
+
+See Also Sections
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The @see keyword can be used to highlight a link to an existing function, file, or URL.
+This directive should be placed on one line, without anything else, at the bottom of the documentation header.
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+ /**
+  * (documentation of function, file, ...)
+  *
+  * @see rte_foo()
+  * @see eal_memzone.c
+  */
diff --git a/doc/guides/index.rst b/doc/guides/index.rst
index 44e8432..faf7c72 100644
--- a/doc/guides/index.rst
+++ b/doc/guides/index.rst
@@ -45,3 +45,4 @@  Contents:
    sample_app_ug/index
    testpmd_app_ug/index
    rel_notes/index
+   coding_standards/index